POTENTIALLY SERIOUS COMPLICATIONS
1. Perforation of stomach/intestine or leakage, causing peritonitis or abscess. (1%-3%)
2. Internal bleeding requiring transfusion. (1%)
3. Severe wound infection – opening of the wound – incisional hernia.
4. Spleen injury requiring removal/other organ injury.
5. Gastric outlet (stomal stenosis) or bowel obstruction.
1. Pneumonia – atelectasis (collapse of lung tissue)
2. Respiratory insufficiency – pulmonary edema (fluid in lungs), Pleural effusion( fluid in chest)
3. Blood clots in legs/lungs (embolism) (1%)
1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
2. Congestive heart failure.
3. Arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats).
4. Stroke (cerebrovascular accident, CVA).
KIDNEY AND LIVER:
1. Acute kidney failure.
2. Liver failure – hepatitis (may progress to cirrhosis).
1. Anorexia nervosa – bulimia.
2. Postoperative depression – dysfunctional social problems.
DEATH (1 in 1000 chance)
Increased risk if:
1. BMI over 50
3. Age > 45
4. Previous PE
OTHER COMPLICATIONS (MAY BECOME SERIOUS)
1. Minor wound or skin infection/scarring, deformity, loose skin.
2. Urinary tract infection.
3. Allergic reactions to drugs or medications. Vomiting or nausea/inability to eat certain foods/improper eating.
4. Inflammation of the esophagus (esophagitis) – acid reflux (heartburn).
5. Low sodium, potassium, or blood sugar – low blood pressure.
6. Problems with the outlet of the stomach (narrowing or stretching).
7. Anemia – metabolic deficiency (iron, vitamins, minerals) – temporary hair loss.
8. Constipation – diarrhea – bloating – cramping – malodorous stool or gas.
9. Development of gallstones or gallbladder disease. (8%)
10. Stomach or outlet ulcers (peptic ulcers).
11. Staple-line disruption – weight gain – failure to lose satisfactory weight.
12. Intolerance to refined sugars (dumping), with nausea, sweating, weakness.
Surgery should not be considered until you and your doctor have evaluated all other options. The proper approach to bariatric surgery requires careful consideration and discussion of the following with your doctor:
- Bariatric surgery is in no way to be considered as cosmetic surgery. The procedures do not involve the removal of fatty tissue by cutting or suction.
- A decision to elect surgical treatment requires an assessment of the benefits and risks to the patient and the meticulous performance of the appropriate surgical procedure.
- The success of bariatric surgery is dependent on long-term lifestyle changes in diet and exercise. (Bariatric surgery is only a tool to help you!)
- Problems may arise after surgery that may require re-operation.
- Your life expectancy can increase with Bariatric surgery.
BENEFITS OF BARIATRIC SURGERY
Severe Obesity: Why the Need for Surgical Intervention?
Severe obesity is one of the most serious stages of obesity. These patients often find struggling with weight and essentially feeling as if they are trapped in a weight gain cycle. In addition, they have most likely attempted numerous diets – only in the end, to see their weight continue to increase.
Individuals affected by severe obesity are resistant to maintaining weight loss achieved by conventional therapies, such as consuming fewer calories, increasing exercise, commercial weight-loss programs, etc.
Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment to combat severe obesity and maintain weight loss in the long term.
How Can Bariatric Surgery Help Me?
When combined with a comprehensive treatment plan, bariatric surgery may often act as an effective tool to provide you with long term weight-loss and help you increase your quality of health. Bariatric surgery has been shown to help improve ore resolve many obesity-related conditions, such as Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and more. Frequently, individuals who improve their weight find themselves taking less and less medications to treat their obesity-related conditions.
Significant weight loss through bariatric surgery may also pave the way for many other exciting opportunities for you, your family, and most importantly – your health.
How Does Bariatric Surgery Work?
By changing your gastrointestinal anatomy, certain bariatric procedures affect the production of intestinal hormones in a way that reduces hunger and appetite and increases feelings of fullness (satiety). The end result is reduction in the desire to eat and in the frequency of eating. Interestingly, these surgically-induced changes in hormones are opposite to those produces by dietary weight loss. Let’s take a closer look at the differences in hormonal changes between surgery and dietary weight loss:
- Bariatric Surgery and Hormonal Changes
Hormonal changes following bariatric surgery improve weight loss by maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure (calories burned). In fact, some surgeries even increase energy expenditure relative to changes in body size. Thus, unlike dietary weight loss, surgical weight loss has a higher chance of lasting because an appropriate energy is created.
- Dieting and Hormonal Changes
In dietary weight loss, energy expenditure is reduced to levels lower than would be predicted by weight loss and changes in body composition. This unbalanced change in energy can often lead to weight regain.
Significant weight loss is also associated with a number of other changes in your body that help to reduce defects in fat metabolism. With increased weight loss, you will find yourself engaging in more physical activity. Additionally, increased physical activity combined with weight loss may often improve your body’s ability to burn fat, lead to a positive personal attitude, and decrease stress levels. Massive weight loss, as a result of bariatric surgery, also reduces hormones such as insulin (used to regulate sugar levels) and cortisol (stress hormone) and improves the production of a number of other factors that reduce the uptake and storage of fat into fat storage depots.
Bariatric surgery may improve a number of conditions and biological actions (hormonal changes) to reverse the progression of obesity. Studies find that more than 90% of bariatric patients are able to maintain a long-term loss of 50% excess body weight or more.
Bariatric surgery can be a useful tool to help you break the vicious weight gain cycle and help you achieve long term weight loss and improve your overall quality of health and life.
Long term Weight Loss Success
Bariatric surgeries result in long-term weight-loss success. Most studies demonstrate that more than 90% of individuals previously affected by severe obesity are successful in maintaining 50% or more of their excess weight loss following bariatric surgery. Among those affected by super severe obesity, more than 80% are able to maintain more than 50% excess body weight loss.
Several large population studies find that individuals affected by severe obesity who have had bariatric surgery have a lower risk of death than individuals affected by obesity who do not have surgery. One of these studies found up to an 89% greater reduction in mortality throughout a 5 year observation period for individuals who had bariatric surgery when compared to those who did not. Another large population study comparing mortality rates of bariatric and non-bariatric patients found a greater than 90% reduction in death associated with Diabetes and a greater than 50% reduction in death from heart disease.
The mortality rate for bariatric surgery (3 out of 1 000) is similar to that of a gallbladder removal and considerably less than that of a hip replacement. The exceptionally low mortality rate with bariatric surgery is quite remarkable considering that most patients affected by severe obesity are in poor health and have one or more life-threatening diseases at the time of their surgery. Therefore, as regards mortality, the benefits of surgery far exceed the risks.
Improvement / Resolution of Coexisting Diseases
Bariatric surgery is associated with weight-loss and improves, or even resolves (cures), obesity-related co-morbidities for the majority of patients. These co-morbidities include high blood pressure, sleep apnea, asthma and other obesity-related breathing disorders, arthritis, lipid (cholesterol) abnormalities, gastroesophageal reflux disease, fatty liver disease, venous stasis, urinary stress incontinence, pseudotumor cerebri, and more.
Changes in Quality of Life and Psychological Status with Surgery
In addition to improvements in health and longevity, surgical weight-loss improves overall quality of life. Measures of quality of life that are positively affected by bariatric surgery include physical functions such as mobility, self-esteem, work, social interactions, and sexual function. Singlehood is significantly reduced, as is unemployment and disability. Furthermore, depression and anxiety are significantly reduced following bariatric surgery.